Game Theory in Solitaire Games
A game is a organized type of interactive play, usually undertaken just for fun or entertainment, and at times used as a teaching tool. Games are quite different from work, which generally is carried out only for profit, and from literature, which is normally more of an expressive or aesthetic component of artistic or literary creation. The distinction between work and play is primarily that the former requires a player to interact with objects while the latter does not. However, there are certain similarities between the two. Both involve the application of certain faculties in order to achieve some ends, such as movement, action, and the use of tools.
In a game, a number of individuals are presented with differing perspectives and tasks, with the objective of achieving a goal through a series of interactions that produce certain results, such as the ability to cook a dish, or to shoot an arrow at a target. In most cases, the objective will be reached when all of the players agree on one course of action, though this may vary depending on the theme or mechanics of the game. In order to achieve this, there must be a balance among various competing forces, with each force driven by its own internal contradictions, the goal of the game, and the equilibrium of all players.
Game theory provides the means through which this may be achieved, particularly through the study of different types of games. There are two categories, namely, symmetric and incongruent, in game theory. The symmetric category, also known as economic models, include games that exhibit no tendency towards any one type of outcome. Examples of symmetric games include Monopoly and Business Domination, among many others. Incongruent models, on the other hand, assume that two equally competent players will take turns choosing a board set up such that one will have the advantage, although this advantage could be offset by the other player’s inferiority.
Within the field of economic models, the most popularly known model is the dictator game. This is named after the player whose task it is to create the board set-up by flipping a coin. In this game theory, the player who has the advantage is the one who, by flipping the coin, makes all the possible future moves that could be made by all the other players simultaneously. The dictator game then serves to demonstrate the principles behind economic models, as well as the ability of the collective mind to come up with certain outcomes. Economists have applied game theory to a wide range of situations, from the negotiation of trade deals to the formulation of political strategy, and even the division of spoils in war games.
In the prisoner’s dilemma, the first player is the only one with a certain number of cards. The second player is designated the “publisher” and each player is assigned a number of partners. The publisher can do anything he wishes to his partners except that he is not allowed to make the same move as the first player. Likewise, the first players is not allowed to do anything to their partner except for the same “publisher” move they could make to themselves. If the second partners try to make a different move than the publisher, then they too will be forced to share the spoils of the game.
One other version of the game requires players to use pure strategy in placing their bets. In this setup, each player receives an equal number of starting money and can place any bet they want. The starting money cannot be refunded as it belongs to the group of players who started the game, and each player can only cash out if all of the other players in the game reach a specific limit on the money they have accumulated. If all players do not reach a predetermined limit before the game ends, then no player can cash out his winnings. The pure strategy variant of the game can be implemented in many of the classic solitaire games.